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Repeat Fly Invasions Within A Phoenix Healthcare Facility Caused Maggots To Take Form Within A Patient’s Wound

Repeat Fly Invasions Within A Phoenix Healthcare Facility Caused Maggots To Take Form Within A Patient’s Wound

Not long ago, Arizona lawmakers passed a law requiring all intermediate healthcare facilities in the state to be licensed. A recent and deplorable insect infestation case at Hacienda HealthCare in Phoenix proves that this law was most certainly in order, as a patient in the facility was found to be literally infested with maggots. The maggots were found nesting within an existing wound on the body of a 28 year-old male patient. In response to this disturbing find, the Arizona Department of Health Services has issued an intent to revoke the facility’s license.

The health services department has accused Hacienda HealthCare as providing grossly inadequate care to its patients. Officials claimed that immediate action is necessary in order to protect patients within the facility from neglect that could possibly result in worsening medical conditions. The maggots were found after a respiratory therapist at the facility found 6 to 12 maggots beneath the patient’s wound dressing. Staff working at the facility claimed that the maggots probably resulted from the patient’s alleged “poor hygiene,” needless to say, this claim was not received well considering the facility’s lengthy record of inadequate patient care. The spokesperson, David Liebowitz further claimed that a “small number” of maggots were found in the man’s wound on wednesday and then a few more were found on thursday. In other words, the presence of maggots in the patient’s wound went ignored by the staff. However, Liebowits also claimed that maggots have not been found on any other patients in the facility.

Despite the purported cause of the maggot infestation as resulting from the victim’s poor hygiene, the department of health quickly learned that several pest control professionals have been in and out of the facility for weeks in an effort to control a fly infestation. Flies had become a problem in the facility due to the installation of blower fans which allowed the flies easy access into the facility. Ironically, the fans that were being installed are meant to prevent flies and other airborne insects from entering the facility. Liebowitz later stated that the maggot presence in the man’s wound was caused by the fly infestation.

Have you ever heard of flies placing their eggs within human body cavities or wounds?

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How Many Widow Spiders Exist In Arizona

While black widow spiders are well known for inflicting painful and medically significant bites to humans, the spiders are not well understood by the public. This is true even in Arizona where the highly venomous spiders can be found on occasion within homes. Internet sites happen to be one of the most significant sources of disinformation concerning black widow spiders. For example, a quick Google search will tell you that “22 types” of black widows can be found just within the city limits of Phoenix and Tucson. However, the United States is home to only 3 “black widow” species, while only one single black widow species, not 22, can be found within the state of Arizona. This species is known as Latrodectus hesperus, or the western black widow, as it is more commonly called. It should also be noted that black widows are categorized in the genus Latrodectus, also known as “widow spiders.” In all, only two widow spider species can be found in Arizona. The other species being the recently introduced “brown widow.”

Black widows are often considered their own species because all three species in the US are referred to by the same common name. These three species are commonly known as southern black widows, western black widows, and northern black widows. Both southern and northern black widows can be found in the eastern half of the US. The southern variety is most often found in areas east of Texas and up north to Virginia, while the northern black widow’s habitat is largely limited to the entire eastern seaboard and into parts of the midwest. The western black widow can be found along the west coast, particularly in the desert southwest. In addition to the western black widow species, another widow species that is not native to the US has been found along the southernmost border of the country. This species is commonly referred to as the brown widow, and it is not known to many residents of Arizona because it has only recently been found in the state. The brown widow was most likely introduced accidentally into the region via shipments of plant matter. Finally, the red widow is a species that can only be found in southern Florida. So far, a total of 31 widow species have been found worldwide.

Have you ever spotted a western black widow within your home? Were you  aware that a non-native widow spider species exists within Arizona?

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The Most To Least Common Arthropod Home Invaders

Once the spring begins in Arizona, the arthropod pests come marching into homes. These arthropod pests include potentially dangerous striped bark scorpions, termites, millipedes, ants, earwigs, cockroaches, ground beetles, flies, mosquitoes and even ticks. According to Dr. Kirk Smith with the Maricopa County Environmental Services Department, the Arizona summer weather can become hot enough that even the deserts hardiest arthropods will enter homes in large numbers in search of respite. This is especially true in southern Arizona cities and towns like Yuma, Bisbee, Tucson and Phoenix, as the weather, the lower altitudes and higher arthropod pest populations can reach temperatures exceeding 115 degrees on the worst days. Once the heat exceeds three digit figures, a wealth of arthropods can begin to struggle for survival.

Although scorpions are generally considered to be among the most adaptive arachnids that exist solely because many species dwell within harsh desert environments, all scorpion species have a limit when it comes to the amount of heat that they can take. The scorpion species most commonly found within homes in Arizona also happens to be the most dangerous to humans. This species is known as the bark scorpion, and they have a long rich history of invading homes within residential areas of southern Arizona. While scorpions are commonly thought to be the deadliest arthropods in Arizona, that title actually belongs to Africanized honey bees (AKA killer bees). Unfortunately, just about all honey bees in Arizona are hybrids of killer bees and common European honey bees. While the majority of beehives exist outdoors, it is not uncommon for Africanized killer bees to establish nests within wall-voids or outside on trees located in neighborhoods. If you should find a hive, move indoors immediately, and call a pest control professional to have the hive safely removed. Typically, ticks do not infest indoor areas, but unfortunately, the brown dog tick in an exception, and this species can be found within Arizona homes. It should also be mentioned that southern Arizona is one of the few geographic areas where brown dog ticks can transmit disease to humans, but such cases are rare in the state.

Have you ever stumbled upon a beehive in Arizona?

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Are Homes Built On Concrete Slabs More Or Less Vulnerable To Termite Attacks?

Termites are easily the most destructive pests in the world, and it is well known that the insects inflict billions of dollars in damages to structures each year within the United States. Due to the increasing destruction being caused by termites each year in the country, more and more homeowners are choosing to have their houses inspected for the wood-eating pests on a regular basis.

Aside from the fact that termites enjoy eating structural wood, the average homeowner knows very little about termites. For example, most homeowners are not able to recognize wood that has been damaged by termites, and most homeowners would not be able to spot an active termite infestation within their home even if the affected area were within plane sight. This is understandable, after all, termites are among the stealthiest of all insect groups. Structural wood that has undergone years of termite damage can be hard to notice, as termites consume wood fibers beneath the surface of structural lumber where entire colonies remain invisible. Since the most destructive group of termites, subterranean termites, forage unseen beneath the soil’s surface, anticipating termite attacks on homes and other structures is next to impossible. Therefore, it would be wise for residents to recognize certain structural features that may make their home vulnerable to termite infestations.

Many homeowners believe that the concrete slab that their home is built on serves as a barrier that prevents termites from accessing their home’s structural wood, but this is not necessarily the case. When it comes to modern home construction, concrete slabs may be the norm, but they actually make homes more vulnerable to termite infestations in the long-run. This is because concrete slabs eventually develop cracks that termites can easily travel through in order to access structural wood above. In fact, termites have more than enough room to travel through concrete openings around plumbing in newly built homes, and the condensation that forms on the external surface of pipes serves to attract thirsty termites to the vulnerable area. A termiticide chemical barrier is often applied to a bare property before concrete slabs are laid in order to prevent termites from breaching the slab after a home is built.

Can you pinpoint any structural imperfections on your home that put it at risk of becoming infested with subterranean termites?

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Which Mosquito Species In Arizona Pose A Health Threat To Residents

Which Mosquito Species In Arizona Pose A Health Threat To Residents? And Which Species Can Become A Nuisance Within Homes In The State?

The United States is home to 150 mosquito species, more than 40 of which can be found in the state of Arizona. It may be hard for some residents to believe that so many mosquito species inhabit the state, but most of these species are completely absent from urban areas. Culex mosquitoes and floodwater mosquitoes are the two main categories of mosquito in Arizona, but the non-native aedes aegypti mosquito, which is responsible for the greatest number of mosquito-borne disease cases in the Americas, has also established a presence in urban and suburban areas in the state. There exists six mosquito pest species that pose a health threat to residents of Arizona, and some can even become a nuisance within homes and yards.

The six medically significant mosquito species that are present within populated areas of Arizona are western encephalitis mosquitoes, southern house mosquitoes, yellow fever mosquitoes, malaria mosquitoes, inland floodwater mosquitoes, and dark rice field mosquitoes. The southern house mosquito can be identified by a design on its abdomen that consists of five distinct lines. Not only are these mosquitoes a nuisance due to their large swarms and the loud buzzing noises that they produce, but they also pose a health threat to both humans and pets. This species is a vector for the west Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis, and they can transmit nematodes that cause dog heartworm in pets and several encephalitis viruses in humans.

The inland floodwater mosquito is one of the most abundant mosquito species in the world and they cause more nuisance infestations than any other mosquito species. These mosquitoes are also notable for inflicting repeated bites and they can spread west Nile virus, western equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and dog heartworm. The inland floodwater mosquito attacks humans in large swarms at dusk, and they can be recognized for the pale brown V-shaped design on their abdomen. These mosquitoes are particularly numerous in residential and urban areas of southern Arizona.

Have you ever been swarmed by mosquitoes while on your property?

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Which Termite Species Are Arizona Homeowners Most Likely To Encounter During The Summer Season

Which Termite Species Are Arizona Homeowners Most Likely To Encounter During The Summer Season

Entomologists and pest control experts consider termites to be Arizona’s number one urban insect pest. Numerous termite species inhabit the state, but there are three particular subterranean termite species that Arizona residents are most likely to encounter within their homes. The arid land subterranean termites habitat in Arizona is largely limited to the southwestern portion of the state. These termites are an important ecological component to the Sonoran desert ecosystem where they are often found infesting creosote and greasewood bushes. One of the main reasons why the rate of termite infestations is high in Arizona is because housing developments are constructed over these desert landscapes. The desert subterranean termite is, perhaps, the most common termite pest found infesting Arizona homes, but they are not as abundant in urban and suburban areas of the state as Gnathamitermes perplexus termites are. Despite this, the little-known Gnathamitermes perplexus termite species rarely infests homes.

The Gnathamitermes perplexus termite species is considered a “true” desert termite species for their habit of consuming a variety of desert plant species. These termites even consume dead grass, weeds and palm trees, and in some cases, these termites are found infesting fence posts, utility posts, mailboxes and in rare cases, a home’s structural wood. Although Gnathamitermes perplexus is the most abundant termite species inhabiting southern Arizona, they rarely infest homes. Both the body length of mature adult swarmers of this species and their wingspan grow to be around three fourths of an inch in length. These termites are brown and color and can be seen swarmin during the daylight hours after a heavy rainstorm. These termites are quite similar in appearance to desert subterranean termites, but soldiers belonging to the  Gnathamitermes perplexus are unique for possessing a lone tooth within their curved jaws. This tooth is looked for when identifying termites in Arizona.

Have you ever found a termite, or several, eating dead grass or plant matter?

 

 

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Which Flea Species Exist In Arizona? And Which Species Are Most Commonly Found Infesting Homes In The State?

Fleas are well known insect pests that are distributed all over the world. Most people are not aware that more than 2,000 flea species have been documented worldwide, and 300 species have been documented within the United States. In the US, the cat flea is the most common domestic tick species. While ticks are well known for being nuisance pests that can inflict irritating bites, the insects are also a public health concern due to their ability to transmit disease-causing pathogens to humans. The flea species that can be found in Arizona include the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), the Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea) and the human flea (Pulex irritans).

Fleas can be hard to notice due to their small size and fast jumping movements that give some people the impression that they fly, but fleas do not possess wings. Most flea species are light brown to dark brown in color and they possess hard flattened bodies that allow them to move rapidly through animal fur and feathers. Fleas are clearly designed to be external parasitic insect pests on animal bodies, but many species will not pass up an opportunity to feed on human blood as well. Fleas also possess rigide comb-like hairs that allow them to remain attached to the external body of animals and humans. This makes fleas difficult to remove by scratching at skin or combing through animal hair. Not only can fleas carry disease-causing pathogens to humans, but they are also direct disease vectors, meaning their bites alone can transmit pathogenic microbes into the human bloodstream. Fleas lay their eggs onto their human and animal hosts, but these eggs eventually slide off and land on nearby surroundings, making many species potential indoor pests. Once fleas mature into larvae, they remain hidden within cracks, bedding and furniture in homes. Both larval and adult fleas feed on blood.

Have you ever spotted fleas within your home?

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The Giant Water Bug Swarm Around Porch Lights Where They Can Inflict Painful And Possibly Toxic Bites On Humans

The Giant Water Bug Swarms Around Porch Lights Where They Can Inflict Painful And Possibly Toxic Bites On Humans

Giant water bugs are airborne aquatic insects that regularly fly to new water sources that are often located near residential and urban habitats. These insects dwell within small and shallow bodies of water such as creeks and ponds, and they are also known for swarming around porch lights, which is often a terrifying nuisance to homeowners given the massive size of these aptly named insects. Many giant water bug species grow to be more than three inches as adults, and multiple species exist within Arizona, but the precise number and identity of species dwelling in the state is a matter of debate among experts. In addition to being large, annoying and frightening to look at, water bugs also inflict extremely painful bites. In fact, several species have been found to possess saliva that causes severe medical symptoms in human bite victims, and at least one of these potentially dangerous water bug species inhabits Arizona.

The L. americanus species of water bug is the most documented and likely the most abundant of all water bug species within the United States. This species is commonly known by multiple nicknames including the “electric light bug”, and as already mentioned, the “giant water bug”. The giant water bug can reach lengths of nearly 2.5 inches, which makes them hard to ignore when they gravitate toward outside light sources in urban and residential areas. Another water bug species that is found within the southern US is the L. uhleri species. Two other water bug species, L. medians and L. griseus, can also be found in Arizona. All North American water bug species swarm toward porch and street lights, but the L. uhleri and L. griseus species are the most commonly spotted species around artificial light sources in residential and urban areas. Recently, seven cases of human water bug bites have been documented in hospitals. The bite victims developed body numbness and intolerable pain following a water bug bite, and research shows that the saliva that these insects produce is toxic enough to cause paralysis in humans. However, very little has been published about water bugs in medical literature, and no case reports detailing human paralysis in response to water bug bites have been published. Studies concerning the toxic effect of water bug saliva on humans are currently being carried out at Arizona State University.

Have you ever encountered an enormous insect hovering around your porch light?

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Dampwood Termites In Arizona Can Attack Living Citrus Trees And Spread Fungal Decay

Arizona is home to a wide variety of termite species from the subterranean, drywood and dampwood groups. The most economically costly termites in Arizona, subterranean termites, have adapted to foraging below the hard and dry desert soil, and drywood termites, most notably the western drywood termite, is right at home in Arizona, as these termites, as their name suggests, both live within and feed upon single pieces of dry wood with low moisture levels. Unlike most termite species in the United States, Subterranean termites in Arizona and drywood termites in general do not require excessive amounts of water in order to survive. However, this is not the case when it comes to dampwood termites, as these aptly named termites only feed on wood sources with relatively high moisture levels. It is for this reason that dampwood termite species are particularly abundant along the rainy west coast, particularly in the state of Washington. It is often claimed that dampwood termites do not exist within Arizona and other parts of the arid Sonoran Desert, but this is false, as Arizona is home to three dampwood termite species. Unlike most termite species, dampwood termites in Arizona infest living trees, especially citrus trees, and some studies show that dampwood termites can facilitate the spread of fungal decay to new sources of wood.

One Arizona termite species, the desert dampwood termite, is a misnomer, as this species is actually a soil-dwelling subterranean termite species. The most widespread and damaging dampwood species in Arizona is the Arizona dampwood termite, while the Pacific dampwood termite and the Nevada dampwood termite are encountered far less often in the state. Dampwood termites are much larger than their subterranean and drywood counterparts, as swarming alates grow to be 2 inches in length, and soldiers and workers grow to be an inch and a half and an inch in length, respectively. Much like drywood termites, dampwood termites don’t typically dwell within soil, but they often infest damp wood that makes contact with soil, and similar to subterranean termites, dampwood termites often infest wooden posts at or below the soil’s surface in order to retain moisture. Although dampwood termites are not a serious concern in Arizona, they can annoy homeowners when they infest baseboards and waterlogged wood sources around homes. In order to retain the high amount of water they need to survive, dampwood termites extract water from the sap of citrus trees, which often damages the trees. Since dampwood termites prefer to feed on moist, decayed and waterlogged wood, they often consume wood that has grown fungi. After feeding on fungi-infested wood, it has been suggested that dampwood termites spread fungal spores to new wood sources.

Have you ever found wet wood that appeared to be damaged by termites?

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Whip Scorpions Are Among The Largest Arachnids Commonly Found In Arizona Homes, But They Are Not As Menacing As They Appear To Be

Whip Scorpions Are Among The Largest Arachnids Commonly Found In Arizona Homes, But They Are Not As Menacing As They Appear To Be

One of the largest arachnids found in Arizona is the tailless whip scorpion. At first glance, whip scorpions look like large spiders, but upon closer inspection, a whip scorpion may look like a mix between a spider and a scorpion. In reality, whip scorpions are neither spiders or scorpions; instead, whip scorpions belong to the Amblypygi order of arachnids. The tailless whip scorpion species found in southern Arizona, P. mexicanus, grows to be around 1 to 2 inches in body length, but their long legs can make them appear much larger. Luckily, whip scorpions do not possess a stinger or pincers, but their long front legs are easily mistaken for pincers. Whip scorpions can use their mouthparts to inflict a pinch to human skin, but these arachnids are not considered medically significant pests to humans, and they do not possess venom glands. Although whip scorpions prefer to dwell beneath tree bark, hollow logs, pre-constructed animal burrows and even termite nests, these bizarre-looking arachnids are sometimes found within homes, particularly in basements and below sinks.

Whip scorpions remain hidden beneath rocks, tree bark and leaf litter during the daytime, but at night, these nocturnal arachnids hunt for prey in the dark by using a pair of front legs as a sensory organ. These arachnids are sometimes found crawling vertically along walls within homes, but they are found more frequently within largely uninhabited structures, like garages, barns, pool houses and sheds. Whip scorpions can be hard to capture and/or kill due to their fast crawling speeds, and they are capable of crawling sideways. Despite being completely harmless to humans, it is not uncommon for pest control professionals to get calls from spooked homeowners who describe the arachnid’s unusual appearance, and how they can be kept out of homes. Therefore, whip scorpions are merely aesthetic insect pests within homes.

Have you ever found a whip scorpion within your home or other structure?